The Rebus Approach to Accessibility & Inclusivity

In part one of our series on accessibility, we covered what accessibility is and why it’s important. Now, learn about what we’re doing to ensure accessibility for the open textbooks we support.

How Do We Ensure Accessibility & Inclusivity of the Open Textbooks Created with Rebus Support?

The Rebus Community is committed to ensuring that all Open Textbooks coming through the Rebus process go through (and pass!) an accessibility audit, and indeed that we build accessibility right into the authoring process.

Currently we are using an in-progress open textbook, Financial Planning in Public Policy, as a pilot/test case for developing an accessibility audit on Rebus Community supported books.

The idea behind what we are proposing is to:

  1. make sure that authors making Open Textbooks are aware of good accessibility practice from the start of the process
  2. help them easily implement good accessibility practice
  3. provide a standard accessibility audit process after an Open Textbook is created (possibly with some tools associated)
  4. provide a mechanism to “fix” accessibility problems found in the audit process
  5. have an “accessibility stamp of approval” for projects that have successfully passed the accessibility audit

Collaborators will be developing an accessibility checklist, which we will then apply to the book, along with figuring out next steps for what such a process should look like.

This process is being undertaken in partnership with the Inclusive Design Research Center at OCAD University and the University of Washington. Follow updates on this topic on the project post in the Rebus Community forum.

For more on accessibility and universal design, check out these resources:

Pressbooks EDU Guide chapter on Accessibility and Universal Design
BC Campus Accessibility Toolkit

What is Accessibility?

At Rebus, we’re committed to ensuring that all Open Textbooks coming through the Rebus process are accessible. In fact, we are working on building accessibility right into the authoring process.

What do we mean by accessibility?

Accessibility is the term used for, roughly, “making it easy for people with disabilities (say people with visual impairments, people with learning disabilities, among others) to access content.” See:

In general the web is good at this … there is markup “behind” the text that you see on a webpage, and that markup (if done correctly) is semantic, meaning it tells you things about the kind of content you are reading. (This is not the case with, for example, a paper book, many PDFs, and some EPUBs).

For instance, in Pressbooks, you get markup that looks something like:

<h1 class=“chapter-title”>Chapter  Title</h1>

<h2>Section title</h2>

Some content.

<h3>Subsection title</h3>

More content.

Usually that semantic markup is translated into visual styling (bold text, etc.), so that a reader can distinguish different chapter/section levels, and this information is processed “automatically” as part of reading.

In the case, for instance, of a visually impaired user of content, who is using a screen reader (software that “reads” the text out loud to the user), the fact that the content uses semantic markup means that the screen reader tool “knows” that h1 is  a chapter title, h2 is a section title etc.

Another common use case is “alt tags” on images … which in good accessibility practice can/should describe the image so that someone using a screen reader can be told what is in the image automatically, even if they cannot see it.

Next: Read about what we’re doing to ensure the accessibility of open textbooks created with Rebus support.

Call for Contributors: A Guide to Authoring Open Textbooks

Are you an open textbook champion who wants to help others by sharing your experience producing open textbooks? Melissa Falldin of the University of Minnesota and Karen Lauritsen of the Open Textbook Network are producing a guide to authoring open textbooks and they’re looking for contributors.

The guide will be for authors or project managers/librarians working with faculty authors who want to write an open textbook.

Currently the editors are seeking authors for two chapters; Institutional Considerations and Writing Recommendations (see the project page for a full description). The project in progress is a first-edition release. Once it is complete and published, the authors will seek feedback to inform future iterations.

Interested in helping? You can let us know by doing the following:

  1. Read the project page in the Rebus Community forum.
  2. Register for the forum and reply to the authors with your interest.

Or, if you have more questions, you can also email

authoring open textbooks image

Call for Contributors: Foundations of Biology

Would you like to help create an Open textbook for biology survey courses at community colleges?

“Foundations of Biology” is being led by a group of authors at Greenfield Community College who are looking to adapt two OpenStax textbooks (Biology and Concepts of Biology) to create a version suitable for the mixed groups that are taught in a community college setting. The project is one of a handful of Open Textbooks being created with the support of the Rebus Community for Open Textbook Creation.

We’re looking for people to help with getting the existing OpenStax texts into the Rebus Community Press (which means some Pressbooks wrangling), checking accessibility requirements and proofreading.

Interested in helping? You can let us know by doing the following:

  1. Read the project page in the Rebus Community forum.
  2. Register for the forum and reply with your interest.

Or, if you have more questions, you can also email

Call for Contributors: History of Applied Science and Technology

Would you like to help create and publish an Open Textbook designed to meet the needs of History of Applied Science and Technology courses at colleges and universities around the world?

“Into the Unknown: Technology, Science, and Their Impact on Society” is in development by lead editors and authors at the University of Maryland University College and the University of North Dakota, and is looking for contributors. “Into the Unknown” is one of a handful of Open Textbook projects being undertaken with the support of the Rebus Community for Open Textbook Creation.

The editors are looking for chapter contributors on a range of topics — see the précis for the full outline. Chapters will be organized around the theme of the transformative impact of technological and epistemological changes on worldview and human behavior as they relate to everyday life and global choices.

Rebus will also be looking for volunteers for tasks from reviewing to proofreading in future.

Interested in helping? You can let us know by doing the following:

  1. Read the project page in the Rebus Community forum.
  2. Register and reply with your interest.

Or, if you have more questions, you can also email

Office Hours Recap & MOU Feedback

Last Wednesday, we met for our monthly Office Hours session to discuss MOUs between institutions and faculty undertaking open textbook projects, and to begin the process of creating a new template MOU that can be used by open textbook creators across the globe.

Out of the discussion came several key areas that an MOU must address:

  • Intellectual property rights
  • Remuneration
  • Liability
  • Timetables (with flexibility built-in)
  • Multi-university collaborations

With these general requirements in mind, we will be drafting a new MOU template that can be used and adapted by open textbook practitioners globally. But first, we are seeking feedback on some existing MOU examples that Amanda Coolidge of BCcampus and Billy Meinke of University of Hawaii kindly shared. As the first step toward the template, we invite you to read through their example MOUs and leave comments on the elements you find especially useful (or not).

We have also included a link to the recently launched Model Publishing Contract for Digital Scholarship. This model is intended mainly for other forms of digital scholarship (monographs etc.) and to govern publisher/author relationships, but let us know in the document linked above if you think there’s anything worth adapting for a textbook-specific MOU. (Thanks to Anita Walz for bringing this one to our attention!)

Finally, we realised that broaching the issue of student involvement in open textbook projects raised more questions than it answered, and as a result, have decided to dedicate January’s Office Hours to discussing student involvement in open textbook projects. We have invited Open pedagogy superstar Robin deRosa, as well as several others who have worked with students on open textbooks, to join us and talk about best practices, student rights and agreements. We hope you can join us. That session will take place Jan. 31 at 2 p.m. EST and you can RSVP here.

A huge thanks to everyone who attended the initial meeting and we look forward to keeping the conversation going!


Zoe + the Rebus Team

A Rebus Community Philosophy of Open Textbooks

I wrote the following as part of an answer to one of our Intro to Philosophy Open Textbook project team members, who wanted a clearer scope for that project (which by the way, is still looking for collaborators — can you help?).

While everything we are doing at the Rebus Community is evolving as we get to work with real practitioners in creating Open Textbooks, we have some important fundamental principles that underpin our understanding of what an Open Textbook is or should be. So, here is:

A Rebus Community Philosophy of Open Textbooks

At Rebus, we believe in the value of books, of textbooks and especially of Open Textbooks. However, we do not consider Open Textbooks as static, finished things. Things that just get read for free.

Rather we see Open Textbooks as building blocks for further intellectual explorations — and the “Open” part makes that building much, much more interesting.

In particular, we see Open Textbooks not simply as “free” books.

More Freedom than Just Costless (aka the 5Rs)

The “costless” aspect of an Open Textbook is in some ways its least important freedom-attribute, compared with the other freedoms that come with Open Textbooks: the freedom to build upon, to remix, to reuse, to revise, redistribute.

Open Textbooks — if created and published at scale — can serve as basic framework for an “intellectual public resource”, a resource that can and should be built upon, used and elaborated upon, repurposed and repackaged in many different ways. (See the 5Rs of Open Educational Resources).

(For more writing about our thoughts on books, and Open Textbooks, see here here and here.)

Open Textbooks as a Map of Knowledge

So thinking about that context broadly, our vision is, eventually, to have a complete “map of the basic building blocks of knowledge” available as Open Textbooks. (Yes! We recognize that such an ambition is, of course, epistemologically impossible! But it’s still a mental model when we are thinking about what we are trying to do: Providing the source code of knowledge, that can built upon).

This ambition means not just that these Open Textbooks/building blocks are free, but even more important that these building blocks can be used to build new educational experiences, new books, new iterations.

An Introduction to X

So, while we are excited about any Open Textbook we can help usher into the world — regardless of how specific or obscure its subject or approach — we have a particular interest in laying down the basic frameworks of knowledge. So that, for instance, the “Introduction to X” might be most useful as a basic introduction to the ideas of, for want of a better term, “the cannon of X,” with an expectation that future iterations, or versions, or companion works can build on this starting point, criticize it and question it.

This is not to say that we hope a Rebus Community-supported “Intro to X” is a dull, personality-free reporting of the history of “X.” But rather that such an “Intro to X” covers the aspects generally agreed to be important to know about “X” … while still leaving space for more idiosyncratic explorations within the text.

And, we hope that, once published, a Rebus supported “Introduction to X” can become a starting point for new explorations and iterations, building on the text itself.

Come join us?

If you are interested in these ideas, come help us build on them at the Rebus Community for Open Textbook Creation.


A Collaborative Approach to Making Open Textbooks … Getting Started

The Rebus Community for Open Textbook Creation is building a global network of people passionate about Open Education, a network of people willing to dedicate time to help with a mission:

To make Open Textbooks available in every subject, in every language in the world.

That’s a (big, very big) long-term goal.

Starting Small: The Projects We are Working On

But it will start small. We are targeting a handful of Open Textbook projects (about 10) in the coming months, and we’ll be working with authors, editors, librarians, college staff, and volunteers around the world to develop a process that makes sense.

We have a couple of projects started already (would you like to help?): Introduction to Philosophy and An Open Anthology of Early American Literature. And we have some great projects in the works, books on: the history of technology, cultural geography, nutrition, and more.

Working with people around the world on this small collection of projects will help us better understand the unique characteristics of Open Textbook creation and community building, help us (all of us together, perhaps including you) build community-driven processes that work well. And help us build the (right) infrastructure to make all of this easier.

How the Rebus Community Can Help

The kinds of things we hope the Rebus Community can help with on Open Textbook projects include:

  • Supporting project management for Open Textbook publishing projects
  • Finding ways to get a global community help support various tasks needed to publish Open Textbooks, including:
    • contributing chapters (where appropriate)
    • copyediting & proofreading
    • reviews & peer reviews of chapters & books
    • sourcing (openly licensed!) illustrations & images
    • formatting, design, and accessibility of Open Textbooks
    • “marketing” books to professors and classes
    • distributing books into libraries and directories
    • making Open Textbooks easy to find and free to anyone in the world

Not every project will need all of this support. In some cases, academic institutions have provided funding for some of these activities. Sometimes there is no funding at all.

And, of course, not every project will want “external” people in all aspects of their book. Each project will be unique, but we hope to develop a general approach that is flexible enough to support many kinds of projects.

But, these are the kinds of things we hope the Rebus Community can help with, partly through our staff, and partly though a growing global network of passionate people dedicated to making Open Textbooks.

What’s the Catch? What Should an Open Textbook Author or Editor Expect to Contribute Back?

And, what of a lead author of an Open Textbook who joins the Rebus Community to get help with a project? What do we expect of them?

First and foremost, we want people who care about Open Education, who believe that the world will be a better place if there is an Open Textbook available in every subject, in every language in the world.

We also are looking for people who care about building a global community around Open Textbooks.

We expect that they will be present on the Rebus Community Forum, and will thank the volunteers who are willing to spend time to work on their projects.

We hope they will respond quickly and positively when, for instance, someone spends a couple of hours proofreading one of their chapters, or finding images for them. Or when someone offers to do this for them.

We hope that they will encourage chapter contributors, thank volunteers who have cleaned up their formatting. In a word, we hope they will spend some time being kind to the people who are helping them make their Open Textbook.

But Really, How Much of My Time?

How much time & commitment this actually will be for a lead author is hard to pin down. Is this two hours a day (probably not!), or an hour a week (maybe)?

In some ways it depends what kind of support the author is seeking. If you are looking only for proofreaders for one chapter, then the time commitment would be small. If you are looking to build a community that will support for the whole process of creating an Open Textbook from scratch — from chapter contributions to reviews to proofreading & design — then chances are you’ll need to put in more time.

We’re Figuring This Out Together

But we (that is, Rebus staff) are here to help.  We’re not quite sure yet what the details will be, exactly how these different projects will work. Though as with anything, I would guess that the more time a lead author puts in to fostering a positive community around an Open Textbook, the more vibrant that community will be. The more successful that book is likely to be.

But, in actual fact, I guess that all of this time would likely be spent in any case: even outside of the Rebus Community, surely an author would thank her proofreaders by email, would express appreciation if someone spent some hours finding great images to go with his chapters.

It Takes a Village

Publishing a book — an Open Textbook, or a traditional one — is not a solitary endeavour.

It takes a village to make a book. Our hope, with the Rebus Community, is that we can bring a global village together, on the web, and help make an Open Textbook for every subject, in every language in the world.

It’s going to take a while, but perhaps you can help us? If you are interested, please wander over to the Rebus Community Forum, register, and say “Hi.”


Call for Open Textbook Editor: The Open Anthology of Earlier American Literature

Would you like to help create and publish an Open Textbook and at the same time contribute to developing a new, collaborative model for publishing Open Textbooks?

The Rebus Community is looking for someone to join “The Open Anthology of Earlier American Literature” as lead editor. The editor should be either faculty or a Ph.D. student in Early American Studies or a related field.

The Anthology is one of a handful of Open Textbook projects being undertaken with the support of the Rebus Community for Open Textbook Creation. Support will be offered in the form of finding contributors and coordinating the different tasks in the publishing process (e.g. proofreading, formatting, reviewing, marketing etc.).


Unlike a traditional managing editor, this role will be the guiding academic voice on the project, but much of the project management work will be handled by the Rebus team, and the work of editing will be shared with collaborators.

What we ask of the lead editor is to:

  • Lead the TOC creation & guide development strategy (possibly in collaboration with others).
  • Tap into their network to help find introduction authors & other contributors.
  • Curate appropriate public-domain literature texts for inclusion.
  • Collect, edit & review introductions (in collaboration with other editors).
  • Help spread the word once the project is completed & encourage adoptions.

Are you interested in becoming the Anthology’s new editor? Let us know by doing the following:

  1. Read the project summary in the Rebus Community forum, then sign up and “Reply” with any questions you have
  2. Email to register your interest in the role

We look forward to hearing from you!

Call for Open Textbook contributions: An Introduction to Philosophy

Would you like to help create and publish an Open Textbook, An Introduction to Philosophy,” and at the same time contribute to developing a new, collaborative model for publishing Open Textbooks?

“An Introduction to Philosophy”, in development by lead author Christina Hendricks (University of British Columbia), is one of a handful of Open Textbook projects being undertaken with the support of the Rebus Community for Open Textbook Creation*.

We’re looking for people to volunteer time, with a variety of tasks envisaged, from chapter contributions, to proofreading and a host of other things. There will be space for everyone from tenured faculty to students to the general public to participate in the project, though chapters will be written by faculty or graduate students (preferably PhD students) in Philosophy.

Interested in helping? You can let us know by doing the following:

  1. Register at the Rebus Community, here:
  2. Read the Project page, and “Reply” with your interest here:

Or, if you have more questions you could send an email to: .